78: The Gut⎥Antibiotics Danger, Fixing Inflammation, and Thyroid Health, with Dr. Lisa Sardinia

Dr. Lisa Sardinia is an associate professor in the Pacific University Biology Department. In this episode we discuss: Majority of antibiotics given to children under three are for upper respiratory issues, fact is antibiotics do not work for such issues 85% of antibiotics used are given to food sources, and released into the environment including soil and water Danger of consuming emulsifiers Cow’s milk US has low gut diversity — more diversity means more resilience Autism and gut connection Resetting your gut microbiota by changing diet

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77: Levothyroxine and Hair Loss⎥Thyroid Health, with Dr. Susanne Breen

In this episode, the following topics are discussed: * Fatigue, hair loss, weight gain, anxiety, and depression. * Sub-clinical hypothyroidism * Standard range for TSH has changed over the years, .5 - 1.5 TSH is optimal * Armour Thyroid vs Levothyroxine * If antibodies are involved than it is most likely related to the gut * Getting off thyroid medication * Testing: TSH, free T3 T4, TPO antibodies, reverse T3 * Getting motivated and inspired by fixing thyroid * Selenium * Iodine * Thyroid supplements * Treating fertility

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76: Hypothyroidism — Diagnosis, Treatment, and Medication with Dr. Leonard Wartofsky from MedStar

Dr. Wartofsky is Professor of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine and Chairman Emeritus, Department of Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center.  He trained in internal medicine at Barnes Hospital, Washington University and in endocrinology with Dr. Sidney Ingbar, Harvard University Service, Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Boston.   In this episode, Dr. Wartofsky discusses the following: * Hypothyroidism causes * When is replacement thyroid replacement hormone necessary? * The history of replacement thyroid hormone going back to 1891 * The early treatment included a chopped up sheep thyroid and served as a 'tartar', often resulting in vomiting * Myxedema coma

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75: Thyroid Cancer Does Not Respond to RAI⎢Treatment Options

In this episode, topics include: * Drug therapy for patients that fail standard therapy; including surgery and RAI * Not all patients have same behavior for their cancer * Some cancers are aggressive * Not many thyroid cancer patients are affected by this; maybe a few thousand in the U.S., but not tens of thousands * What is the treatment protocol for therapy? * Lenvatinib or Sorafenib is the treatment for refectory thyroid cancer * Lenvatinib tends to be more effective * Sorafenib is tolerated by the patient better * Other options to consider include, molecular profiling or some thyroid cancers carry mutation that is targetable, or BRAF * BRAF inhibitors used with thyroid cancer patients * Molecular profiling * DNA sequencing

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74: Thyroid and Pregnancy⎥Why It Matters, with Dr. Elizabeth Pearce from Boston University

In this episode, topics include: * Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy * Pregnant and without a thyroid * Avoiding T3 during pregnancy, including concerns with desiccated thyroid * If being treated for hypothyroidism already, the importance of upping dose while pregnant * Pregnant with auto-immunity * Pregnant with Graves' disease * The dangers of pregnancy and overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism

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73: Innovaciones en el Tratamiento del Cáncer de Tiroides, con el Dr. Hernán Tala desde Santiago, Chile

Dr. Hernán Tala es endocrinólogo de la Clinica Alemana en Santiago, Chile. Su area especialidad incluye cáncer de tiroides avanzado, endocrinologia general, y enfermedades tiroides. Los temas presentados incluyen: * Una mejor comprensión de la biología del cáncer de tiroides, y que no todo el cáncer de tiroides es igual. La enfermedad es única en cada paciente. * La importancia de entender el perfil del cáncer en cada paciente. * Diagnóstico del nódulo. * Perfil molecular del nódulo tiroideo. * Una pausa en la exploración universal del cáncer de tiroides. * Vigilancia activa

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72: Treatment of Thyroid Cancer in Japan, with Dr. Takahiro Okamoto from Tokyo Women’s Medical University

A different approach to treating thyroid cancer compared to the U.S. Dr. Takahiro Okamoto helped write the Japanese guidelines on thyroid cancer.  He is Professor & Chair of the Department of Surgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University.  Key points from this episode include: * Most Western countries carry out total thyroidectomies, whereas in Japan, the approach is more conservative with a fundamental practice of hemithyroidectomy whenever possible. * By not doing a total thyroidectomy, this allows the patient to not avoid taking thyroid replacement medication. * Complete thyroidectomy is conducted when 80-90% of lymph nodes have metastasis. * I-131 treatment is decreasing despite cases of cancer increasing * For I-131 treatment, patients wait more than 6 months post surgery. * When receving I-131 treatment, patients be admitted to hospital for several days. * TSH suppression therapy is common in Western countries, whereas in Japan, measures are taken to avoid TSH suppression by not removing all of the thyroid. * Normal TSH in Japan is 4.3 or less.

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71: Hipotiroidismo – Causas, Síntomas, y Exámenes. Con la Dra. Gabriela Brenta de Buenos Aires

Hipotiroidismo: el tratamiento, pronóstico, posibles complicaciones, y cuándo contactar a un médico. La tiroides produce hormonas que controlan la forma como cada célula en el cuerpo usa la energía. Este proceso se denomina metabolismo. Hipotiroidismo es una afección en la cual la glándula tiroides no produce suficiente hormona tiroidea. Esta afección a menudo se llama tiroides hipoactiva.

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70: Cáncer de Tiroides, con la Dra Ines Califano de Universidad de Buenos Aires

Cáncer de Tiroides, con la Dra Ines Califano de Universidad de Buenos Aires Reduzca la ansiedad durante el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides En esta entrevista, discutimos lo siguiente: 1. ¿Qué es un nódulo? 2. ¿Qué sucede durante ecografia? 3. ¿Qué sucede durante la oja fina? 4. Si es cáncer, ¿siempre hace la cirugía? 5. Si no es cáncer, ¿algunas veces hace cirugía?

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